Ben Willems


Bernardus "Ben" Willems is an engineering research psychologist with the Human Factors Branch. He joined the FAA in 1998 after he had conducted air traffic control human factors research as a contractor for three years. Experiments that Mr. Willems has conducted have investigated concepts such as the effect of traffic load levels, controller involvement, automation, and multi-sector control on air traffic controller behavior. He is currently working on the design of a concept air traffic control workstation and an experiment to compare controller behavior between the conventional and redesigned system.

Ben has received numerous awards and honors for his research, including the South Jersey Professional Societies (IEEE / AIAA / INCOSE / ITEA / NSBE) Scientist of the Year in 2000.

Contact Information

Ben Willems
Federal Aviation Administration
William J. Hughes Technical Center, Building 28
Atlantic City International Airport, NJ 08405
Phone: (609) 485-4191
Fax: (609) 485-6218
Ben.Willems@faa.gov

Publications

Willems, B., Masalonis, A. J., Fincannon, T., Puzen, G. M., & Bastholm, R. A. (2016). Separation management human-in-the-loop simulation: Evaluations of conflict probe alert reliability requirements and conflict probe algorithmic improvements (DOT/FAA/TC-16/38). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Cardosi, K. M., Donohoe, C., Willems, B., Albert, H., Anderson, G., Chen, J. M., Murphy, E. D., Carter, R., & Felbinger, R. (2015). Information Display Protocol (DOT/FAA/TC-TN-15/24). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Bastholm, R., Willems, B., & Masalonis, T. (2015, May). Effects of time-based metering on heart rate variability and ocular indices of mental workload. Poster presented at the 18th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH.

Harrison, J., Izzetoglu, K., Ayaz, H., Willems, B., Hah, S., Ahlstrom, U., Woo, H., Shewokis, P.A., Bunce, S.C., & Onaral, B. (2014). Cognitive workload and learning assessment during the implementation of a Next-Generation Air Traffic Control Technology using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions, Volume: 44 , Issue: 4. DOI: 10.1109/THMS.2014.2319822.429–440.

Hah, S., Willems, B., Mueller G., et al. (2013). Human Factors Evaluation of Conflict Resolution Advisories in the En Route Domain (DOT/FAA/TC-13/55). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Woo, H., Willems, B., Harrison, J.Izzetoglu, K, Hah, S., & Ayaz, H. (2013). The use of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to assess cognitive workload of air traffic controllers. Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.

Higgins, J. S., Willems, B., Johnson, D. R., & Zingale, C. M. (2012). Human factors evaluation of pointing devices used by air traffic controllers: Changes in physical workload and behavior (DOT/FAA/TC-12/63). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Rein, J. R., Masalonis, A. J., Messina, J., & Willems, B. (2012). Separation Management: Automation reliability meta-analysis and conflict probe reliability analysis (DOT/FAA/TC-TN-12/65). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Zingale, C. M., Willems, B., Schulz, K., & Higgins, J. S. (2012). Separation Management (SepMan 2): Human factors evaluations of conflict probe location and format and workstation display alternatives (DOT/FAA/TC-12/62). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B., Hah, S., and Schulz, K. (2011), Evaluation of the impact of data communications on controller workload using the functional near infra red imaging technique. Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC), 978-1-61284-798-6/11/, 6D3-1 to 6D3-8.

Ayaz, H., Willems, B., Bunce, S., Shewokis, P. A., Izzetoglu, K., Hah, S., Deshmukh, A., Onaral, B. (2011). Estimation of Cognitive Workload during Simulated Air Traffic Control using Optical Brain Imaging Sensors. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.

Hah, S., Willems, B., Ayaz, H., Bunce, S., Izzetoglu K., & Deshmukh, A. (2011). The comparison of air traffic controllers' to college students' memory performance and brain activities. Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, May 2-5.

Willems, B., Hah, S., & Schulz, K. (2010). En route data communications: Experimental human factors evaluation (DOT/FAA/TC-10/06). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Zingale, C. M., Willems, B., & Ross, J. M. (2010). Future En Route Workstation Study (FEWS III): Human-in-the-loop simulation of air traffic controller management of advanced aircraft concepts (DOT/FAA/TC-10/14,III). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Zingale, C., & Willems, B. (2009). Review of aircraft self-spacing concepts: Implications for controller display requirements (DOT/FAA/TC-09/03). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Hah, S., Willems, B., Schulz, K. (2008). The Relationship between Aircraft Count and Controller Workload in Different En Route Workstation Systems. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting. 44-48.

Willems, B., & Hah, S. (2008). Future En Route Workstation Study (FEWS II): Part 1 − Automation Integration Research (DOT/FAA/TC-08/14,II). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B., Hah, S., & Phillips, R. (2008). Future En Route Workstation Study (FEWS I): Part 1 − Evaluation of Workstation and Traffic Level Effects (DOT/FAA/TC-08/14,I). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B., & Koros, A. (2007). Advanced concept of the National Airspace System of 2015: Human factors considerations for air traffic control (DOT/FAA/TC-TN07/21). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B., Hah, S., & Phillips, R. (2006, July). The effect of data link on en route controller workload. Paper presented at NJTC Aviation Technologies - "Looking Toward Tomorrow." FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic City International Airport, NJ.

Hah, S., Willems, B., & Phillips, R. (2006). The effect of air traffic increase on controller workload. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, 50-54.

Hah, S., Willems, B., & Phillips, R. (2006). The effect of air traffic increase on controller workload. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting , 50-54.

Allendoerfer, K. R., Willems, B., Zingale, C., & Pai, S. (2006). Methods for examining possible effects of En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) on controller performance (DOT/FAA/TC-TN06/14). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Allendoerfer, K. R., Zingale, C., Pai, S., & Willems, B. (2006). En route air traffic controller commands: Frequency of use during routine operations (DOT/FAA/TC-TN06/04). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B., Heiney, M., & Sollenberger, R. (2005) Study of an ATC Baseline for the Evaluation of Team Configurations: Effects of Allocating Multisector Control Functions to a Radar Associate or Airspace Coordinator Position (DOT/FAA/CT-05/07). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Sollenberger, R. L., Willems, B., Della Rocco, P. S., Koros, A., & Truitt, T. (2004). Human-in-the-Loop Simulation Evaluating the Collocation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, Traffic Management Advisor, and Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications: Experiment I – Tool Combinations (DOT/FAA/CT-TN04/28). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B. (2004). Future en route air traffic control workstation: Back to basics. In Proceedings of the 23rd AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference (pp. 5.A.3.1-12). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE

Truitt, T., McAnulty, D. M., & Willems, B. (2004). Effects of collocation and reduced lateral separation standards in the New York Integrated Control Complex (DOT/FAA/CT-TN04/08). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B., Heiney, M., Sollenberger, R. (2002). Study of an ATC baseline for the evaluation of team configurations: Information requirements (DOT/FAA/CT-02/17). Atlantic City International Airport: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center

Willems, B., & Heiney, M. (2002). Decision support automation research in the en route air traffic control environment (DOT/FAA/CT-TN02/10). Atlantic City International Airport: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B., & Truitt, T. R. (1999). Implications of reduced involvement in en route air traffic control (DOT/FAA/CT-TN99/22). Atlantic City International Airport: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.

Willems, B., Allen, R. C., & Stein, E. S. (1999). Air traffic control specialist visual scanning II: Task load, visual noise, and intrusions into controlled airspace (DOT/FAA/CT-TN99/23). Atlantic City International Airport: Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center.